A team of physicists at the Institut Lumière Matière, in collaboration with the Cancer Research Center of Lyon , has demonstrated the potential, for oncology, of an imaging technique based only on the physical properties of tumours.
It can differentiate populations of malignant cells and monitor how effective an anticancer treatment is.
These results, published in Physical Review Letters on January 8, 2019, should help in the design of new therapeutic molecules and in the personalisation of treatments.
Despite a good understanding of the biology of cancer, 90% of experimental drugs fail during clinical trials.
It is also increasingly suspected that the mechanical properties of tumours influence disease progression, and treatment efficacy.
Although we can evaluate tumour elasticity globally, it is more difficult to measure local rigidity deep down and to see whether the core of the tumour resists the penetration of therapeutic liquids.
To probe these physical properties, the researchers have used a non-contact imaging technique that does not require the use of contrast agents – therefore that does not disturb tissue function – that exploits natural infinitesimal vibrations of matter.
To recapitulate the behaviour of colorectal tumours in vitro, the researchers created organoids, spheres with diameter 0.3 mm formed by the aggregation of tumour cells.
They focused a red laser beam onto these objects.
The infinitesimal vibrations of the sample, generated by thermal agitation, modify very slightly the colour of the light beam that exits the sample.
By analysing this light, a map of the mechanical properties of the model tumours is created: the more rigid the area scanned by the laser, the faster the vibrations and, in a manner comparable to the Doppler effect (the mechanism that makes a siren sound increasingly shrill as it gets closer), the greater the colour change.
From organoids composed of two cell lines with different malignancies, the researchers have shown that they could distinguish the two cell types from their mechanical properties.
Such information is crucial because it may allow diagnosis from biopsy analysis to be refined and offer better assessment of tumour grade.
Local variations in mechanical properties after a drug treatment have also been monitored using this technique: the centre of the tumour remains rigid longer than the edge, demonstrating the treatment’s efficacy gradient.
So local measurement of mechanical properties could confirm the total destruction of the tumour and help in choosing as low a treatment dose and duration as possible.
This approach allows exploring the impact of mechanical properties on the therapeutic response.
It should lead to more predictive in vitro tumour models for testing new therapeutic molecules and for combined therapies, which act for example on tissue rigidity to accelerate the penetration of active molecules in the centre of the tumour.
It could also provide new indicators to guide clinicians in personalisation of therapies.